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This publication guides the buyers or commissioners of market research through the process for procuring high-quality insight.

The guide includes best practice specifications and project roadmaps, answering questions such as:

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Market Research Society Best Practice ...

Originally published at

IHC International Conference in Heritage Management, 30th September – 2nd October 2016
HerMA as a concept is both a conference and a degree – it is the Masters in Heritage Management, delivered jointly by the University of Kent and the Athens University of Economics and Business, and it is an annual three-day conference that is both an intrinsic part of the degree course and an opportunity for international heritage management issues to be presented and discussed. The conference is held in Elefsina, an industrial town just west of Athens that will be a European Capital of Culture in 2021.
The 2016 meeting was the 3rd annual conference, with over 40 speakers presenting in a single series of sessions. This is an excellent format for a conference on this scale – with no parallel sessions, every delegate was able to hear every paper, and discussion opportunities were good and well-engaged with.
While the conference is tied in to the degree, and many current students and recent alumni were presenting, this was more than just a student conference. It represented a safe space for early-career professionals to develop their presentational skills (all the papers were in English, which was a second language for most presenters).
The conference was also accompanied by side events and workshops, making the most of Elefsina’s setting and urban weave to engage participants in provocative art experiences and walks, thinking about archaeology within the past and present environment and how the past and present environment shapes encounters with and experiences of archaeological remains – starting with the conference venue.
The Old Olive Oil Factory (Paleo Eleourgio)
Image copyright: the author
The HerMA conference is staged in Elefsina’s splendidly atmospheric Old Olive Oil Soap Factory, a celebration of elegant industrial decay in a building complex that was at its economic height in the first half of the twentieth century, but which now functions as a cultural event space.
Sat beside the harbour, this is one of a string of former industrial sites along the town’s shoreline, the abandonment of which combine to present Elefsina as a place that feels like its glory days may be past now – but industry is still present and real, as immediately next to the venue is a big, working cement factory and across the bay is one of Greece’s largest oil refineries.
And furthermore, industry is not what Elefsina has always been known for. Elefsina was once Eleusis, and the caves below the rocky hill in the centre of the town are where Hades snatched Persephone and abducted her into the underworld, trapped until she was duly rescued by her dutiful mother Demeter. With Demeter conveniently being the goddess of agriculture and fertility, the story nicely fits in with the annual agricultural cycle, as Persephone’s life of light and growth is followed by darkness and misery when she is confined in the underworld until she re-emerges to bring the first spring. The story was then appropriated into Roman myth – Persephone became Proserpina – and the visible archaeological site of Eleusis is now principally constituted of structures to service Roman pilgrims to the sanctuary. And when that era ended, with the Christianisation of Rome, Elefsina was reborn again, as the church that now sits on that sacred rocky hill continues to bluntly emphasise.
The conference was set out with five thematic sessions, each with a keynote speaker followed by five or six short papers, extending from landscape archaeology to community engagement by way of repatriation, education and 3D digital tools, before the conference concluded with a general session on managing heritage resources. Throughout, public archaeology – in all of its many guises – was a common theoretical reference

Elena Papagiannopoulou & Jaime Almansa Sánchez starting off their presentation. (Image copyright: the author)
If ever a conference had a star, this one did, and the star was Matthew Bogdanos. And he is all the more remarkable a star for an archaeological conference, as he is not an academic archaeologist; indeed, he wouldn’t call himself an archaeologist – he is an Assistant District Attorney in Manhattan, a boxing champion, and is the US Marine Corps Colonel who was sent to secure the Iraq Museum in Baghdad after the city fell to the Americans in 2003 and the looters broke in.
Since then he has devoted both his military and legal capital to countering the trafficking of stolen, illicitly traded antiquities, and to telling the story of how and why this is done. As the author of The Thieves of Baghdad, his presentation updated the audience on the ways, and appalling scale, that antiquities from south-west Asia, Afghanistan and elsewhere have been stolen and sold in the last decade – with dramatic descriptions of events that he was part of, details of which he asked the audience not to repeat in publication. So all this reviewer can say is that the things Colonel Bogdanos talked about were revealing, important, and ultimately uplifting as we learned specifics of how the fight – and it is a fight – against illicit antiquities dealing can and does make a difference for the cultural
heritage of the world.
The subtitle of the conference, “Developing Best Practices in Heritage Management”, could have been misinterpreted as suggesting that this would have been a string of worthy, but managerial, papers. But HerMA was much more than this; it was a conference that couldn’t easily be categorised, but can be considered as one of a range of contemporary academic workshop-events, like ICAHM Tampere, presenting novel ways to deliver academic engagement. Its openness felt in one part like TAG, its international-ness and academic intimacy – with a small group of global delegates hearing all the papers, and then discussion continuing around artistic
side-events – felt like a WAC Inter-Congress. This contemporary model for conferences, where active participant engagement is fostered rather than passive receipt of ‘learning’ sets out a positive and valuable way forward for archaeological practice and
academia to work and progress together.

Conference Review: 3rd IHC HerMA Confe...

Breaking New Ground: how professional archaeology works, Kenneth Aitchison’s 2012 contemporary history of professional archaeology in the UK, how it developed and what the key organisations and sites have been  – is now reduced in price.

It’s now available through for only £0.99.

a good, exhaustive guide and update for the archaeologist and non archaeologist in understanding how archaeology in the UK has developed  Stratman, October 2012


PRICE UPDATE – as of 3rd August 2017, Amazon are also providing a £1 Amazon Video (AV) Reward for purchaser, a discount against an eligible purchase – so currently pay £0.99, get £1.00 back!

Breaking New Ground – price redu...

Landward Research Ltd are delighted to have worked with the South Downs National Park Authority to produce

Guidelines for the Stewardship of Heritage Assets in Forestry Management,

as part of the Secrets of the High Woods programme.

Coralie Mills of Dendrochronicle and Gordon Brown of John Clegg & Co worked with Doug Rocks-Macqueen to write these guidelines, which Landward Research Ltd are very pleased to have published on behalf of SDNPA. Quonya Huff designed the publication, which showcases Landward’s expertise in working collaboratively at the interface between heritage and natural environment.

These guidelines have been produced as a consequence of an idea which developed during the Secrets of the High Woods project, as described by Ian McConnell in the recently published Secrets of the High Woods project book (McConnell in Manley 2016). That is, to engage with local foresters and land managers to make them aware of the newly discovered archaeological resources within their estates so that the potential impacts of forestry activities on those resources could be mitigated in practical ways. These guidelines are the result of consultation with those foresters and land managers of the wooded estates.

The document briefly reviews the Secrets of the High Woods project, legislation, standards & guidance surrounding forestry management and the archaeology of the area. The appendices cover these topics in greater depth.  The heart of the guidelines covers how to obtain archaeological advice and how resources, like Historic Environment Records, are available to support the protection of heritage assets. Furthermore, it presents several case studies from the South Downs that highlight best practice being undertaken in forestry work to avoid damaging cultural heritage assets.


Secrets of the High Woods – Heri...

The report on Skills Needs in Buildings History and Garden History 2016-17 is available for download

Skills Needs in Buildings History and Garden History 2017


Executive Summary

The synthetic results presented here and in this report’s sister project, Survey of Archaeological Specialists 2016-17 (Aitchison 2017) allow for comparison between sub-sectors and across specialist areas in the Historic Environment sector. This report covers the results of a survey of buildings history and garden history specialists based on 408 responses.
The key findings of this survey are:

 Charges: Buildings history specialists charge day rates between £50 – £1,280 with a median of £350 and average of £394.
 Charges: Garden history specialists charge day rates between £120 – £800 with a median of £375 and an average of £383.
 Competition: Most specialists in both subsectors encounter moderate amounts of competition.
 Employers: 62.9% of buildings history and 52.7% of garden history specialists work for commercial companies.
 Employer type: Most of the specialists are either sole traders or work for larger organisations (with more than nine employees). Location: Both subsector specialists are based throughout the UK but the south of England and Scotland have the highest concentrations of specialists.
 Gender: Two thirds of both subsector specialists are male. However, this is related to age and there is gender parity between specialists under the age of 45.
 Age: The largest age cohort is those aged 55-64 in both specialisms.
 Ethnicity: Both subsectors are ethnically unrepresentative, with only one person of a non-white background working in them.
 Disability: There are also very low levels of building history and garden history specialists with stated disabilities.
 Qualifications gained: Roughly two-thirds of the specialists have a Masters degree, though few have a PhD.
 Retirement: 12% of buildings history or garden history specialists plan to retire in the next five years, with a further 25-30% planning on stopping working in these sectors in 6-10 years.
 Working hours: 70% of respondents work full-time, with those who are older more likely to work part-time.
 Waiting lists: Half of the specialists currently have waiting lists of work, indicating a mixed work situation in terms of demand.
 Qualifications needed: Buildings history and garden history specialists believe a Masters or undergraduate degree is required to become a specialist but not a PhD. The majority believe new entrants need 1-2+ years of experience and ongoing professional mentoring.
 Entry level training: Buildings history specialists typically consider that it is moderately difficult for new entrants to gain initial specialist training. Garden history specialist find it more difficult.
 CPD access: Respondents consider it to be moderately difficult to access training to facilitate their ongoing continuing professional development.
 CPD types: Reading professional publications, attending specialists’ conferences and taking refresher courses are the preferred routes to obtain CPD.
 Skills loss: No areas of buildings history or garden history are at risk of skills loss within the next five years.
 Skills loss 2: However, beyond the five-year horizon between 25-29% of respondents plan to retire in 6-10 years. In five years’ time it is therefore likely that there could be shortages in both fields.
 Future workload and Brexit effect: A large portion of buildings history and garden history specialists do not anticipate any changes in demand for their services in the near future. The anticipation of Brexit has no effect on these beliefs.

At the end of this report recommendations are made which set out possible actions for individual specialists, training providers and funding bodies to address some of the findings of this survey.


The report and project data have been accessioned to the Archaeology Data Service and are available at 

Skills Needs in Buildings History and ...

The Survey of Archaeological Specialists 2016-17 report has been published.

Download Survey of Archaeological Specialists 2016-17.

Executive Summary

A survey of archaeological specialists has found that, in early 2017, specialists appear to have recovered from the economic downturn of the previous decade, but are cautious about the possibility that there will be increased demand for their services in the near to medium future.

This study, which has aimed to collect data from a wide variety of areas of specialist activity within archaeology, received information from 882 specialists. The synthetic results presented here allow for comparison between specialisms and across broad specialist areas.

Comments received from respondents make it clear that not everyone who is working in this sector is doing this to earn a living, as some are delivering services on a voluntary basis.

  • Archaeological Specialists charge day rates between £40 – £3,000 with an average day rate of £259.
  • Typical charges are highest in the areas of survey and “other” specialisms, and are lowest for illustration and archiving specialist services.
  • More archaeological specialists encounter “very little” than encounter a “great deal” of competition
  • More archaeological specialists work for commercial companies (39.2%) than work for other forms of organisations.
  • 2% of archaeological specialists work for larger organisations (with more than nine employees)
  • Archaeological specialists are based throughout the UK, with the highest concentrations in Scotland, south-east and south-west England.
  • 55% of archaeological specialists are female.
  • The ages of archaeological specialists are relatively evenly distributed between 25 and 65, with the mean age of an archaeological specialist being calculated as 47.2.
  • Archaeological specialisms are ethnically unrepresentative of the UK workforce as a whole, with 97.5% being white.
  • There is also a very low level (3.4%) of archaeological specialists who are disabled.
  • More than three quarters of archaeological specialists have a Masters degree or higher qualification.
  • 5% of archaeological specialists plan to retire in the next five years, with 28.6% planning on stopping working in the next 10 years.
  • Just under two thirds of archaeological specialists work full-time.
  • Less than half of archeological specialists currently have waiting lists of work indicating a potentially unhealthy level of demand.
  • Most archaeological specialists believe a postgraduate Masters or PhD is required to become a specialist. Also, the majority believe new entrants need at least a year of experience and ongoing professional mentoring.
  • Archaeological specialists consider that it is difficult for new entrants to gain initial specialist training.
  • The majority of archaeological specialists consider that ongoing CPD training is “very” or “quite” difficult to access; overall, CPD training is considered to be more difficult to access than entry-level training.
  • Reading professional publications, attending specialist and general conferences are the most preferred routes to obtain CPD.
  • Only one area (Physical Dating) is considered to be at risk of skills loss as a result of a high proportion of current specialists intending to cease working within the next five years. In no areas were significant reductions in workload anticipated to lead to loss of expertise.
  • Archaeological specialists anticipate that major infrastructure projects will lead to more projects, but with increased pressure on them to deliver, leading to them having to reduce their costs and to an overall reduction in the number of archaeological specialists.
  • It is anticipated that the UK’s forthcoming departure from the European Union will have relatively little effect on archaeological specialists’ working lives, but they do think it would also lead to a reduction in the number of archaeological specialists.

Recommendations are made which set out actions for individual specialists, training providers and funding bodies.


This report has been accessioned to the Archaeology Data Service, and is available at 


Survey of Archaeological Specialists 2...